Radioactive Tracers: Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalPhonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)BooksCarbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Convection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Ethylenebis(dithiocarbamates): A class of thiocarbamate derivatives whose salts possess fungicidal activity.Ethylenethiourea: A degradation product of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) fungicides. It has been found to be carcinogenic and to cause THYROID hyperplasia.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Salivary Gland DiseasesIodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)ComputersMedical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.United StatesComputer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.