Quantitative Trait, Heritable
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Genome-Wide Association Study
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Physical Chromosome Mapping
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Animals, Outbred Strains
Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
Genetic Association Studies
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Monte Carlo Method
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Animals, Inbred Strains
Gene Expression Profiling
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Rats, Inbred Dahl
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Hip Dysplasia, Canine
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Radiation Hybrid Mapping
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Analysis of Variance
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Expressed Sequence Tags
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Rats, Inbred SHR
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
Rats, Inbred WKY
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
Gene Expression Regulation
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5
Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial
Plants, Genetically Modified
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6
Disease Models, Animal
Genetic Complementation Test
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Gene Regulatory Networks
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Principal Component Analysis
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.