Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Tonic Pupil: A pupillary abnormality characterized by a poor pupillary light reaction, reduced accommodation, iris sector palsies, an enhanced pupillary response to near effort that results in a prolonged, "tonic" constriction, and slow pupillary redilation. This condition is associated with injury to the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp492-500)Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Schools: Educational institutions.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Partnership Practice, Dental: A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Salivary alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Serum Amyloid A Protein: An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.Mydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.Cyclopentolate: A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Tropicamide: One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Stomatognathic System: The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Bermuda: A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)Protestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)Eyebrows: Curved rows of HAIR located on the upper edges of the eye sockets.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.