Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Capital Punishment: The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Pedophilia: A sexual disorder occurring in a person 16 years or older and that is recurrent with intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (generally age 13 or younger). (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994).Criminal Psychology: The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.ArgentinaLegislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Hemorrhagic Fever, American: Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.OhioHistory of MedicineGeorgiaUnited StatesScientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Famous PersonsMorals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.VermontSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.