Punctures: Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.COUP Transcription Factor I: A COUP transcription factor that was originally identified as a homodimer that binds to a direct repeat regulatory element in the chicken albumin promoter. It is a transcription factor that plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Post-Dural Puncture Headache: A secondary headache disorder attributed to low CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure caused by SPINAL PUNCTURE, usually after dural or lumbar puncture.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Coat Protein Complex I: A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Blood Patch, Epidural: The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Atrial Septum: The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Larynx, Artificial: A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Hemostatic Techniques: Techniques for controlling bleeding.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Speech, Alaryngeal: Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Neurosyphilis: Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)Bloodletting: Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Seizures, Febrile: Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Morganella morganii: A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Groin: The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nephrostomy, Percutaneous: The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Paraphimosis: A condition in which the FORESKIN, once retracted, cannot return to its original position. If this condition persists, it can lead to painful constriction of GLANS PENIS, swelling, and impaired blood flow to the penis.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Wound Closure Techniques: Methods to repair breaks in tissue caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anthracosilicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of dust that contains both CARBON and crystalline SILICON DIOXIDE. These foreign matters induce fibrous nodule formation in the lung.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Hemostasis, Surgical: Control of bleeding during or after surgery.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Headache Disorders: Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Maxillary Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials: The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Subdural Effusion: Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.Peritoneal Lavage: Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.