Public Health Surveillance
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Public Health Informatics
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Anniversaries and Special Events
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Public Health Administration
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Public Health Practice
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Health Systems Plans
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Communicable Disease Control
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
World Health Organization
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Occupational Health Services
Electronic Health Records
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Delivery of Health Care
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Public Health Nursing
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Child Health Services
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Schools, Public Health
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Sensitivity and Specificity
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Health Care Reform
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Health Services Accessibility
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Attitude to Health
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Health Care Surveys
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Education, Public Health Professional
Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.
Primary Health Care
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
United States Public Health Service
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Medical Laboratory Personnel
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Quality of Health Care
United States Department of Defense
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government whose mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter WARFARE and to protect the security of our country.
Health Services Research
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Health Services Needs and Demand
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Geographic Information Systems
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Community Health Nursing
A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.
National Health Programs
Health Status Disparities
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.)
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Attitude of Health Personnel
The status of health in urban populations.
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The status of health in rural populations.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
Community Health Services
Community Health Planning
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
Health Care Rationing
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Product Surveillance, Postmarketing
Guidelines as Topic
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Mental Health Services
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Health Care Sector
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Regional Health Planning
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Rural Health Services
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Preventive Health Services
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Medical Records Systems, Computerized
Public Health Dentistry
Air Pollutants, Occupational
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.
Community Health Centers
Quality Assurance, Health Care
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Health Planning Guidelines
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Interviews as Topic
Emergency Service, Hospital
Maternal Health Services
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
Health Plan Implementation
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Health Planning Support
Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.
State Health Plans
United States Dept. of Health and Human Services
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.