Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Reality Therapy: Method of psychotherapeutic treatment based on assumption of patients' personal responsibility for their own behavior. The therapist actively guides patients to accurate self-perception for fulfillment of needs of self-worth and respect for others. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Psychotherapeutic Processes: Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Psychoanalytic Interpretation: Utilization of Freudian theories to explain various psychologic aspects of art, literature, biographical material, etc.Psychodrama: Primarily a technique of group psychotherapy which involves a structured, directed, and dramatized acting out of the patient's personal and emotional problems.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Implosive Therapy: A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic: Forms of PSYCHOTHERAPY falling within or deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition, that view individuals as reacting to unconscious forces (e.g., motivation, drive), that focus on processes of change and development, and that place a premium on self understanding and making meaning of what is unconscious.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Identification (Psychology): A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Psychotherapy, Multiple: The use of more than one therapist at one time in individual or group psychotherapy.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Psychotherapy, Rational-Emotive: The replacement of illogical and unrealistic ideas with more realistic and adaptive ones through direct intervention and confrontation by the therapist.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Paraphilias: Disorders that include recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects, suffering of oneself or partners, or children or other nonconsenting partners. (from DSM-IV, 1994)Suggestion: The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.Relaxation Therapy: Treatment to improve one's health condition by using techniques that can reduce PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS; or both.Mind-Body Therapies: Treatment methods or techniques which are based on the knowledge of mind and body interactions. These techniques can be used to reduce the feeling of tension and effect of stress, and to enhance the physiological and psychological well-being of an individual.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Shamanism: An intermediate stage between polytheism and monotheism, which assumes a "Great Spirit", with lesser deities subordinated. With the beginnings of shamanism there was the advent of the medicine man or witch doctor, who assumed a supervisory relation to disease and its cure. Formally, shamanism is a religion of Ural-Altaic peoples of Northern Asia and Europe, characterized by the belief that the unseen world of gods, demons, ancestral spirits is responsive only to shamans. The Indians of North and South America entertain religious practices similar to the Ural-Altaic shamanism. The word shaman comes from the Tungusic (Manchuria and Siberia) saman, meaning Buddhist monk. The shaman handles disease almost entirely by psychotherapeutic means; he frightens away the demons of disease by assuming a terrifying mien. (From Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p22; from Webster, 3d ed)Existentialism: Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Behavior Control: Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Psychiatric Nursing: A specialty concerned with the application of psychiatric principles in caring for the mentally ill. It also includes the nursing care provided the mentally ill patient.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Day Care: Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Mental Healing: The use of mind to cure disease, particularly physical illness.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Spiritualism: Religious philosophy expressing the fundamental belief that departed spirits may be contacted by the living through a medium.Hypnosis: A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Free Association: Spontaneous verbalization of whatever comes to mind.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Stress Disorders, Traumatic: Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Munchausen Syndrome: A factitious disorder characterized by habitual presentation for hospital treatment of an apparent acute illness, the patient giving a plausible and dramatic history, all of which is false.Psilocybine: The major of two hallucinogenic components of Teonanacatl, the sacred mushroom of Mexico, the other component being psilocin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Nondirective Therapy: A procedure in which the therapist refrains from directing the client, but instead reflects back to the client what the latter has said, sometimes restating the client's remark.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Art Therapy: The use of art as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Narcissism: A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Remote Consultation: Consultation via remote telecommunications, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a patient at a site remote from the patient or primary physician.Insurance Claim Reporting: The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Therapeutic Community: Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Neurodermatitis: An extremely variable eczematous skin disease that is presumed to be a response to prolonged vigorous scratching, rubbing, or pinching to relieve intense pruritus. It varies in intensity, severity, course, and morphologic expression in different individuals. Neurodermatitis is believed by some to be psychogenic. The circumscribed or localized form is often referred to as lichen simplex chronicus.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Crisis Intervention: Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.