Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Community Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.Adolescent Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Psychology, Medical: A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.Psychology, Comparative: The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Preventive Psychiatry: A discipline concerned with the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of mental health.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Psychology, Industrial: The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Military Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with problems related to the prevention, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of mental or emotional disorders of Armed Forces personnel.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Neuropsychiatry: A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Literature, ModernDangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Philosophy, MedicalMentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Gestalt Theory: A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Emergency Services, Psychiatric: Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).Self Psychology: Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.Displacement (Psychology): The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Psychology, Military: The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.Psychology, Applied: The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.BooksQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Codependency (Psychology): A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.Secularism: Indifference to, or rejection of, RELIGION or religious considerations. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Latency Period (Psychology): The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Deinstitutionalization: The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Introversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Criminal Psychology: The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Identification (Psychology): A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Communism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Race Relations: Cultural contacts between people of different races.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Freudian Theory: Philosophic formulations which are basic to psychoanalysis. Some of the conceptual theories developed were of the libido, repression, regression, transference, id, ego, superego, Oedipus Complex, etc.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Great BritainBiography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.United StatesAntipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Videoconferencing: Communications via an interactive conference between two or more participants at different sites, using computer networks (COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS) or other telecommunication links to transmit audio, video, and data.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.USSRData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.HistoryProfessional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Crisis Intervention: Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Reactive Attachment Disorder: Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Famous PersonsSelf Concept: A person's view of himself.