Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Community Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.Adolescent Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Preventive Psychiatry: A discipline concerned with the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of mental health.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Military Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with problems related to the prevention, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of mental or emotional disorders of Armed Forces personnel.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Neuropsychiatry: A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Literature, ModernHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Philosophy, MedicalMentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Emergency Services, Psychiatric: Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Secularism: Indifference to, or rejection of, RELIGION or religious considerations. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Deinstitutionalization: The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Communism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Psychology, Medical: A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Freudian Theory: Philosophic formulations which are basic to psychoanalysis. Some of the conceptual theories developed were of the libido, repression, regression, transference, id, ego, superego, Oedipus Complex, etc.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Videoconferencing: Communications via an interactive conference between two or more participants at different sites, using computer networks (COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS) or other telecommunication links to transmit audio, video, and data.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.USSRPsychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.HistoryCrisis Intervention: Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Reactive Attachment Disorder: Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)Great BritainFamous PersonsDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.