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Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Racemases and Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Prostatitis: Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.PTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Prostatic Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PROSTATE or its component tissues.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Uterine Cervical Dysplasia: Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Electrosurgery: Division of tissues by a high-frequency current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Conization: The excision of a cone of tissue, especially of the CERVIX UTERI.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Condylomata Acuminata: Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous: Disappearance of a neoplasm or neoplastic state without the intervention of therapy.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.