Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Burnout, Professional: An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.United StatesPhysicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Great BritainEducation, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Professional Impairment: The inability of a health professional to provide proper professional care of patients due to his or her physical and/or mental disability.Ethics, Nursing: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Tennis: A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Nurse's Role: The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.EnglandSocieties, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.BrazilPharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Boxing: A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Personnel Loyalty: Dedication or commitment shown by employees to organizations or institutions where they work.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Role: The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Physical Therapists: Persons trained in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY to make use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Nurse-Patient Relations: Interaction between the patient and nurse.Librarians: Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Libraries, MedicalPrimary Care Nursing: Techniques or methods of patient care used by nurses as primary careproviders.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.EuropeGeneral Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Patient Care: The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Community Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.