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Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Viburnum: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.Polygonum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is an ingredient of Shou-Wu-Pian, a Chinese herbal preparation (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). The common name of black bindweed also refers to TAMUS or Fallopia (use POLYGONACEAE).Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Pelargonium: A plant genus of the family GERANIACEAE. The common name of geranium is also used for the GERANIUM genus.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Bombacaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.Ephedra sinica: A plant species of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta. It is a source of EPHEDRINE and other alkaloids.Ribes: A plant genus of the family GROSSULARIACEAE. GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID is obtained from the black currant oil of the seeds.Photinia: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. The common names of chokeberry or chokecherry are also used for some species of PRUNUS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.PicratesSulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.