Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.
Instruments inserted into the vagina for examination of the tissues of the vagina and cervix by means of a magnifying lens.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Terrorism on September 11, 2001 against targets in New York, the Pentagon in Virginia, and an aborted attack that ended in Pennsylvania.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.
White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.
Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.
Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.
Polysaccharide isolated from the edible mushroom LENTINULA EDODES. The exact composition is unknown.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Process in which the mechanisms of projection or displacement are utilized in focusing feelings of aggression, hostility, frustration, etc., upon another individual or group; the amount of blame being unwarranted.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.