Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.PolyvinylsAlcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Surgical Sponges: Gauze material used to absorb body fluids during surgery. Referred to as GOSSYPIBOMA if accidentally retained in the body following surgery.Gelatin Sponge, Absorbable: Sterile, gelatin-base surgical sponge applied topically as an adjunct to hemostasis when the control of bleeding by conventional procedures is ineffective to reduce capillary ooze or is impractical. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p797)Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Phenylmercury Compounds: Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to a phenyl group. Often used as fungicides and seed treatment agents.Enbucrilate: A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.Ethiodized Oil: Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Military Facilities: Areas designated for use by the armed forces personnel.Gilbert Disease: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.AcetalsHydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.PiperazinesSilicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Oxygenators, Membrane: Devices in which blood and oxygen are separated by a semipermeable membrane, generally of Teflon or polypropylene, across which gas exchange occurs. The membrane may be arranged as a series of parallel plates or as a number of hollow fibers; in the latter arrangement, the blood may flow inside the fibers, which are surrounded by gas, or the blood may flow outside the fibers and the gas inside the fibers. (Dorland, 28th ed)Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gluconacetobacter xylinus: A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Bombacaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.