Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.United StatesEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Social Marginalization: Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Homophobia: Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities or services based on perceived homosexual preference or orientation.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.IndiaComputer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Optical Storage Devices: A computer disk read by a laser beam, containing data prerecorded by a vendor. The buyer cannot enter or modify data in any way but the advantages lie in the speed of accessibility, relative immunity to damage, and relatively low cost of purchase.Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Awards and PrizesConsummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Nobel PrizeGambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.VirginiaWest VirginiaMarylandSmoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.NevadaTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.