Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.Topoisomerase I Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE I.Dermatitis, Toxicodendron: An allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to plants of the genus Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus). These include poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac, all plants that contain the substance urushiol, a potent skin sensitizing agent. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Rodent Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.Toxicodendron: A genus (formerly part of Rhus genus) of shrubs, vines, or trees that yields a highly allergenic oleoresin which causes a severe contact dermatitis (DERMATITIS, TOXICODENDRON). The most toxic species are Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac), T. diversilobum (poison oak), and T. radicans (poison ivy). T. vernicifera yields a useful varnish from which certain enzymes (laccases) are obtained.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.DNA Topoisomerases, Type I: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing the superhelical turns and knotted rings in the DNA helix.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Anacardiaceae: The sumac plant family in the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and woody vines that have resin ducts in the bark. The sap of many of the species is irritating to the skin.Animals, PoisonousDNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.Amsacrine: An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Ipecac: A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, CEPHAELIS ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain EMETINE, cephaeline, psychotrine and other ISOQUINOLINES. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Chlorpropham: A carbamate that is used as an herbicide and as a plant growth regulator.omega-Chloroacetophenone: A potent eye, throat, and skin irritant. One of its uses is as a riot control agent.Accidents, HomePlant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Thevetia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain thevetin.Razoxane: An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Health Educators: Professionals who plan, organize and direct health education programs for the individual, groups and the community.Aneugens: Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.Riot Control Agents, Chemical: Chemical substances which are employed during a riot in order to control or disperse the rioting parties.Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coroners and Medical Examiners: Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.Topotecan: An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.Teniposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Teniposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent cells from entering into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, and lead to cell death. Teniposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cycle.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Cell Wall Skeleton: A mucoprotein found in the cell wall of various types of bacteria. It has adjuvant and antitumor activities and has been used to augment the production of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)PanamaBenzodioxoles: Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Indenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Hotlines: A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Methyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.AcridinesSpindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Gas PoisoningAntigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.IndolizinesStreet Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.Aegle: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE.2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Azulenes: Compounds based on a seven-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. Heat can rearrange them to NAPHTHALENES which have two fused six-membered rings. They are similar to guaiazulenes which are SESQUITERPENES with a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Fishes, PoisonousDinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole: An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.AccidentsHerbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Podophyllotoxin: A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.Physicians' Offices: The room or rooms in which the physician and staff provide patient care. The offices include all rooms in the physician's office suite.Sri LankaSodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)San FranciscoAntivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).IllinoisChloromercuribenzoates: Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pigmentation DisordersBivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.TexasMicrotubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Dermoscopy: A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Costa RicaConsumer Product SafetyAntibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.United StatesNova Scotia: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NEW BRUNSWICK; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Halifax. The territory was granted in 1621 by James I to the Scotsman Sir William Alexander and was called Nova Scotia, the Latin for New Scotland. The territory had earlier belonged to the French, under the name of Acadia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p871 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p384)FloridaCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.IsraelPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.CaliforniaMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.