Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Spirituality: Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Hemipelvectomy: Amputation of a lower limb through the sacroiliac joint.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.HumanitiesBehavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Engraving and EngravingsGift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.BaltimoreAwards and PrizesNeurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.