Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Tennis: A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.OregonColoradoEuthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Suicide, Assisted: Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Tropicamide: One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Ethylmercuric Chloride: A highly toxic compound used as a fungicide for treating seeds.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.ReadingCommunication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Epilepsia Partialis Continua: A variant of epilepsy characterized by continuous focal jerking of a body part over a period of hours, days, or even years without spreading to other body regions. Contractions may be aggravated by movement and are reduced, but not abolished during sleep. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY demonstrates epileptiform (spike and wave) discharges over the hemisphere opposite to the affected limb in most instances. The repetitive movements may originate from the CEREBRAL CORTEX or from subcortical structures (e.g., BRAIN STEM; BASAL GANGLIA). This condition is associated with Russian Spring and Summer encephalitis (see ENCEPHALITIS, TICK BORNE); Rasmussen syndrome (see ENCEPHALITIS); MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS. (From Brain, 1996 April;119(pt2):393-407; Epilepsia 1993;34;Suppl 1:S29-S36; and Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p319)Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.