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Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.ManikinsPinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.SmokeResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.