Whistleblowing: The reporting of observed or suspected PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or incompetence to appropriate authorities or to the public.Physician Impairment: The physician's inability to practice medicine with reasonable skill and safety to the patient due to the physician's disability. Common causes include alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness, physical disability, and senility.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Physicians, Primary Care: Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Malingering: Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.Occupational Therapy: Skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It assists in the development of skills needed for independent living.International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: The World Health Organization's classification categories of health and health-related domains. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) consists of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation. The ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Patient Safety: Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Text Messaging: Communication between CELL PHONE users via the Short Message Service protocol which allows the interchange of short written messages.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Muscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.