Phlebotomus Fever: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Sandfly fever Naples virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Georgia (Republic)Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Phlebovirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Tagetes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of marigold is also used for CALENDULA.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Dictionaries, MedicalDengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.ItalyMuseums