PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl: Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative: A myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myelodysplasia associated with bone marrow and peripheral blood patterns similar to CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA, but cytogenetically lacking a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr/abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.PiperazinesProto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcr: Proto-oncogene protein bcr is a serine-threonine kinase that functions as a negative regulator of CELL PROLIFERATION and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. It is commonly fused with cellular abl protein to form BCR-ABL FUSION PROTEINS in PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME positive LEUKEMIA patients.Genes, abl: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase: The initial phase of chronic myeloid leukemia consisting of an relatively indolent period lasting from 4 to 7 years. Patients range from asymptomatic to those exhibiting ANEMIA; SPLENOMEGALY; and increased cell turnover. There are 5% or fewer blast cells in the blood and bone marrow in this phase.PennsylvaniaLeukemia, Myeloid, Accelerated Phase: The phase of chronic myeloid leukemia following the chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC-PHASE), where there are increased systemic symptoms, worsening cytopenias, and refractory LEUKOCYTOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Morale: The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.ThiazolesBone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl: Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.Building Codes: Standards or regulations for construction which are designed to ensure safety against electrical hazards, fires, etc.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Harringtonines: Tetracyclic spiro-BENZAZEPINES isolated from the seeds of CEPHALOTAXUS. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Isochromosomes: Metacentric chromosomes produced during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS when the CENTROMERE splits transversely instead of longitudinally. The chromosomes produced by this abnormal division are one chromosome having the two long arms of the original chromosome, but no short arms, and the other chromosome consisting of the two short arms and no long arms. Each of these isochromosomes constitutes a simultaneous duplication and deletion.Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act: PL97-248. Title II of the Act specifies "provisions relating to savings in health and income security programs." This includes changes in payment for services, benefits and premiums of Medicare as well as changes in provisions under Medicaid and other specific programs covered by Social Security. Title II includes various revenue measures.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Library AssociationsTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Leukemia, Neutrophilic, Chronic: A rare myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by a sustained, mature neutrophilic leukocytosis. No monocytosis, EOSINOPHILIA, or basophilia is present, nor is there a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr-abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, B-Cell: A neoplasm of prolymphocytes affecting the blood, bone marrow, and spleen. It is characterized by prolymphocytes exceeding 55% of the lymphoid cells in the blood and profound splenomegaly.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Fibrinogens, Abnormal: Fibrinogens which have a functional defect as the result of one or more amino acid substitutions in the amino acid sequence of normal fibrinogen. Abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule may impair any of the major steps involved in the conversion of fibrinogen into stabilized fibrin, such as cleavage of the fibrinopeptides by thrombin, polymerization and cross-linking of fibrin. The resulting dysfibrinogenemias can be clinically silent or can be associated with bleeding, thrombosis or defective wound healing.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Sp2 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed Sp transcription factor that binds to the consensus DNA sequence GGGCGGGAC.Hobbies: Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Primary Myelofibrosis: A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Ikaros Transcription Factor: A transcription factor that plays a role as a key regulator of HEMATOPOIESIS. Aberrant Ikaros expression has been associated with LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)