An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.
Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.
An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Excision of the uterus.
Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.
Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.
Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.