Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Arabis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. Member species are ornamentals grown for their numerous small white, yellow, pink, or purplish flowers.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Amaranthaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.Agrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Epichloe: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, which are fungal symbionts of grasses. Anamorphic forms are in the genus NEOTYPHODIUM.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Ergotamines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids containing the ergotaman backbone structure.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Neotyphodium: The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.Dactylis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains allergen Dac g I.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Pimpinella: A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Primula: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Scorzonera: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. INULIN and SESQUITERPENES have been found in it.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fluocinolone Acetonide: A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Andropogon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of bluestem is also used for other plants in this family. Andropogon nardus has been reclassified as CYMBOPOGON nardus and Andropogon zizanioides to VETIVERIA zizanioides.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Urtica dioica: A plant species of the genus Urtica, family URTICACEAE. Roots have been used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA. Leaves are edible after the stinging quality is eliminated by brief heating.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Festuca: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Mimulus: A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.Pennisetum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Betulaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Bromus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM).Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Anemone: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpene saponins. The root of Anemone raddeana is the source of a Chinese folk medicine, zhu jie xian fu. The common name of liverwort is also used with other plants. This genus is unrelated to SEA ANEMONES.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Terfenadine: A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Helleborus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain hellebrin (BUFANOLIDES). The extract is the basis of Boicil preparation used to treat rheumatism.Agropyron: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of wheatgrass is also used for other plants in the family.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Sublingual Immunotherapy: A method of treating an ALLERGY by administering ALLERGENS, in liquid formulation or tablets, to the ORAL MUCOSA under the tongue.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Florigen: Molecule produced in plant leaves that acts like a hormone by inducing flowering in the shoot apical meristem of buds and growing tips.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Pregnadienediols: Doubly unsaturated pregnane derivatives with two hydroxy groups substituted anywhere on the rings or side chains.Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Plant Dormancy: The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Animal DiseasesRNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).