Pentanoic AcidsValeratesCaproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.QuinolinesStatic Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectPyrimidinonesPyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalValproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 22.214.171.124.Vigabatrin: An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Price ListsDrugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Prescription Fees: The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.