Pentacyclic Triterpenes: Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.TriterpenesOleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.Lycopus: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains rosmarinic acid and isopimarane diterpenoids and has been used in folk medicine for HYPERTHYROIDISM.Celastraceae: A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Lantana: A plant genus of the family VERBENACEAE. Members contain lantadene and other TRITERPENES.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Mimusops: A plant genus of the family SAPOTACEAE. Members contain triterpenoid saponins. Latex from bark incisions is processed into gutta balata.Maytenus: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE.Salacia: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. Members contain friedelane-type TRITERPENES and SESQUITERPENES, EUDESMANE.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Centella: A plant of the family APIACEAE which is the source of asiatic acid and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. = Hydrocotyle asiatica L. is known for effect on peripheral circulation.Riboflavin Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, utilizing a four-carbon fragment from one molecule which is transferred to the second molecule. EC 126.96.36.199.Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Alstonia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain echitovenidine, echitamine, venenatine (an indole alkaloid), and anti-inflammatory triterpenoidsSpectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ziziphus: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Members contain nummularogenin (a spirostane) and is the source of an edible fruit.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Commiphora: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE which is a source of gugulipid and guggulu extract. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to ABIES.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Forsythia: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.Alisma: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE. The flowers have 3 green sepals, 3 yellow and white petals, 6 stamens, and several pistils. Members contain TRITERPENES and SESQUITERPENES. Alisma is a component of tokishakuyakusan. Some species in this genus are called water plantain which is also a common name for other ALISMATACEAE plants.Actaea: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Cycloartanes have been found in the rhizomes.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Barringtonia: A plant genus of the family Lecythidaceae. Members contain nasimalun A and B (neo-clerodane diterpenoids).Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Bryonia: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE that is the source of bryodin 1 (a ribosome-inactivating protein).Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Poria: A genus of basiodiomycetous fungi in the family Coriolaceae. Members are known for infesting wood.Lecythidaceae: A plant family of the order Lecythidales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.