The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
Inability to achieve and maintain an erection (ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION) due to defects in the arterial blood flow to the PENIS, defect in venous occlusive function allowing blood drainage (leakage) from the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum penis), or both.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.
A genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known for its mild calming effect and for the way cats are attracted to the aroma.
Sulfones are a class of organic compounds containing the functional group with a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and another organic group, widely used in pharmaceuticals, particularly for the treatment of bacterial infections, leprosy, and certain types of cancer.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4, often used in pharmaceuticals as smooth muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antihistamines, but can also be found as recreational drugs with stimulant and entactogen properties.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A condition characterized by hardening of the PENIS due to the formation of fibrous plaques on the dorsolateral aspect of the PENIS, usually involving the membrane (tunica albuginea) surrounding the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum penis). This may eventually cause a painful deformity of the shaft or constriction of the urethra, or both.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
The climax of sexual excitement in either humans or animals.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)