Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Penicillium chrysogenum: A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.Patulin: 4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one. A mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is found in unfermented apple and grape juice and field crops. It has antibiotic properties and has been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic and causes chromosome damage in biological systems.Citrinin: Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Penicillic Acid: A mycotoxin with antibiotic and carcinogenic activity produced by various strains of PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS. It has been found in tobacco, sausages, and corn.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Isocoumarins: Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Sulfate Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.2-Aminoadipic Acid: A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).Eurotiales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA characterized by the presence of well defined peridia and cleistothecial asci. Notable anamorphs (mitosporic forms) of Eurotiales include PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS.PyransBoxing: A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Asterias: A genus of STARFISH in the family Asteriidae. One species, Asterias rubens, is the most common in the north-east Atlantic region.Cholestanones: CHOLESTANES substituted with any number of keto groups.Medicine in ArtCholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Indigofera: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of indigo also refers to Baptisia or Amorpha genera (FABACEAE).Guyana: A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.Helichrysum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CHALCONE, helichrysetin, arenarin, and flamin.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Arum: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. The name derived from ar (fire in Arabic) due to the irritating sap. Flower is a spathe.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Laboratory Chemicals: Chemicals necessary to perform experimental and/or investigative procedures and for the preparation of drugs and other chemicals.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Nevus of Ota: A macular lesion on the side of the FACE, involving the CONJUNCTIVA and EYELIDS, as well as the adjacent facial skin, SCLERA; OCULOMOTOR MUSCLES; and PERIOSTEUM. Histological features vary from those of a MONGOLIAN SPOT to those of a BLUE NEVUS.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.