Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Ischium: One of three bones that make up the coxal bone of the pelvic girdle. In tetrapods, it is the part of the pelvis that projects backward on the ventral side, and in primates, it bears the weight of the sitting animal.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Lesser Pelvis: The part of the pelvis, inferior to the pelvic brim, that comprises both the pelvic cavity and the part of the PERINEUM lying inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM.Pelvimetry: Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Kidney Calices: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Hemipelvectomy: Amputation of a lower limb through the sacroiliac joint.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Pubic Symphysis: A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Abdominal NeoplasmsUrinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Golf: A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Meigs Syndrome: The triad of benign FIBROMA or other ovarian tumors with ASCITES, and HYDROTHORAX due to large PLEURAL EFFUSIONS.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Hip Dislocation, Congenital: Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pelvic Girdle Pain: Discomfort associated with the bones that make up the pelvic girdle. It occurs frequently during pregnancy.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Twins, ConjoinedAbdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.