Pasteurization: Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Consumer Product SafetyDisinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.Milk, HumanIce Cream: A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.DairyingAbattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)BelgiumAnimal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.