Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
Atypical gamma immunoglobulins characterized by their irreversible heat denaturation at 56-degrees C. Pyroprecipitation is inhibited at pH below 3 and above 9. The presence of pyroglobulins in the serum is the cause of pyroglobulinemia. They are frequently present in multiple myeloma and the pyroglobulin precipitate binds complement, reacts with rheumatoid factor, produces passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, generalized passive anaphylaxis and passive Arthus-type phenomena.
Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Immunoglobulin Light Chains
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
Connective Tissue Diseases
Synthetic organosiloxane gels that are formed from synthetic polymers of silicone oxide with organic sidechains (polydimethylsiloxane) by lengthening the polymer chains. Unlike silicone elastomers, they are not treated with amorphous silica. They are used as fillers in breast implants.
A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.
Programmed Instruction as Topic
Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
A nonlinear electrophoretic technique used to separate a variety of ionic compounds, ranging from small metal ions to large molecules like proteins. Unlike "linear" zone electrophoresis in which separating solute bands continually spread by diffusion or dispersion, isotachophoresis forms self-sharpening, adjacent zones of substantially pure solute whose concentrations often exceed several mgs/ml. In isotachophoresis a multianalyte sample is introduced between the leading electrolyte and the terminating electrolyte where the sample ions have lower electrophoretic mobilities than the leading ion but larger than the terminating ion. (From "Isotachophoresis" on the AES Web Site [Internet]. Madison, WI: The American Electrophoresis Society; c2000-2008 [cited 2009 Aug 20]. Available from http://www.aesociety.org/areas/isotachophoresis.php)
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Encyclopedias as Topic
Drug Information Services
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
Formularies as Topic
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Medical Records Systems, Computerized
Factor V Deficiency
Diseases that result in THROMBOSIS in MICROVASCULATURE. The two most prominent diseases are PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC; and HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME. Multiple etiological factors include VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL damage due to SHIGA TOXIN; FACTOR H deficiency; and aberrant VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR formation.
Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic
An acquired, congenital, or familial disorder caused by PLATELET AGGREGATION with THROMBOSIS in terminal arterioles and capillaries. Clinical features include THROMBOCYTOPENIA; HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA; AZOTEMIA; FEVER; and thrombotic microangiopathy. The classical form also includes neurological symptoms and end-organ damage, such as RENAL FAILURE.
A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.