Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Schools which offer training in the area of health.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)
A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.
A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.