Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
A broad category of oxidoreductases that either reduce double bonds or oxidize single bonds between OXYGEN and CARBON in organic compounds.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a protein-disulfide in the presence of glutathione, forming a protein-dithiol. Insulin is one of its substrates. EC 1.8.4.2.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
A MOLYBDENUM requiring enzyme that catalyzes the terminal reaction in the oxidative degradation of SULFUR AMINO ACIDS with the formation of a sulfate. A deficiency of sulfite oxidase results in sulfocysteinuria.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
An inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of sulfur-containing lipids (sulfatides) and MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES. Excess levels of both substrates are present in urine. This is a disorder of multiple sulfatase (arylsulfatases A, B, and C) deficiency which is caused by the mutation of sulfatase-modifying factor-1. Neurological deterioration is rapid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cerebroside 3-sulfate (sulfatide) to yield a cerebroside and inorganic sulfate. A marked deficiency of arylsulfatase A, which is considered the heat-labile component of cerebroside sulfatase, has been demonstrated in all forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.8.
A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of SPHINGOLIPIDS primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and to a variable degree in the visceral organs. They are classified by the enzyme defect in the degradation pathway and the substrate accumulation (or storage). Clinical features vary in subtypes but neurodegeneration is a common sign.
An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.
An autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of cerebroside sulfate (SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS) in the nervous system and other organs. Pathological features include diffuse demyelination, and metachromatically-staining granules in many cell types such as the GLIAL CELLS. There are several allelic and nonallelic forms with a variety of neurological symptoms.
A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.
A genus of the family REOVIRIDAE infecting vertebrates only. Transmission is horizontal and infected species include humans, birds, cattle, monkeys, sheep, swine, baboons, and bats. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS is the type species.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serotype of ORTHOREOVIRUS, MAMMALIAN causing serious pathology in laboratory rodents, characterized by diarrhea, oily coat, jaundice, and multiple organ involvement.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA.
A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in the CYTOSOL.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.