A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth.
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Malocclusion in which the mandible is anterior to the maxilla as reflected by the first relationship of the first permanent molar (mesioclusion).
Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.
The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.
A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.
A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An occlusion resulting in overstrain and injury to teeth, periodontal tissue, or other oral structures.
Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.
Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.
Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.
Measurement of tooth characteristics.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.
Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.
Loose-fitting removable orthodontic appliances which redirect the pressures of the facial and masticatory muscles onto the teeth and their supporting structures to produce improvements in tooth arrangements and occlusal relations.
An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.