Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A smooth, solid or cystic fibroepithelial (FIBROEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS) tumor, usually found in the OVARIES but can also be found in the adnexal region and the KIDNEYS. It consists of a fibrous stroma with nests of epithelial cells that sometimes resemble the transitional cells lining the urinary bladder. Brenner tumors generally are benign and asymptomatic. Malignant Brenner tumors have been reported.
Granulosa Cell Tumor
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor
A sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor consists of LEYDIG CELLS; SERTOLI CELLS; and FIBROBLASTS in varying proportions and degree of differentiation. Most such tumors produce ANDROGENS in the Leydig cells, formerly known as androblastoma or arrhenoblastoma. Androblastomas occur in the TESTIS or the OVARY causing precocious masculinization in the males, and defeminization, or virilization (VIRILISM) in the females. In some cases, the Sertoli cells produce ESTROGENS.
A gonadal stromal neoplasm composed only of THECA CELLS, occurring mostly in the postmenopausal OVARY. It is filled with lipid-containing spindle cells and produces ESTROGENS that can lead to ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA; UTERINE HEMORRHAGE; or other malignancies in postmenopausal women and sexual precocity in girls. When tumors containing theca cells also contain FIBROBLASTS, they are identified as thecoma-fibroma tumors with less active hormone production.
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)
Sertoli Cell Tumor
Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors
Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Neoplasms, Second Primary
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue
Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue
Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)
Soft Tissue Neoplasms
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage
Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.