Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.ShoesMetatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Scheuermann Disease: A type of juvenile osteochondrosis affecting the fibrocartilaginous disc (INTERVERTEBRAL DISC) in the thoracic or thoracolumbar region of the SPINE. It is characterized by a forward concave SPINAL CURVATURE or KYPHOSIS.Foot Deformities: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Foot Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.BooksNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Durable Medical Equipment: Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.AmputeesMedicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.MontanaNational Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Patient Credit and Collection: Accounting procedures for determining credit status and methods of obtaining payment.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Heel Spur: A bony outgrowth on the lower surface of the CALCANEUS. Though often presenting along with plantar fasciitis (FASCIITIS, PLANTAR), they are not considered causally related.Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Podiatry: A specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of foot disorders and injuries and anatomic defects of the foot.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Cor Triatriatum: A malformation of the heart in which the embryonic common PULMONARY VEIN was not incorporated into the LEFT ATRIUM leaving behind a perforated fibromuscular membrane bisecting the left atrium, a three-atrium heart. The opening between the two left atrium sections determines the degree of obstruction to pulmonary venous return, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Magnetosomes: Membrane-bound prokaryotic organelles of magnetotactic bacteria that contain chains of MAGNETITE crystals which orient the bacteria to geomagnetic fields.