Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Ethics, Pharmacy: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Off-Label Use: The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.United StatesViola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Alicyclobacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS, in the family Alicyclobacillaceae, containing a unique lipid in their membranes.SwitzerlandKinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.TexasLaboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.Northwest Territories: A federally administered division of Canada. Its capital is Yellowknife. The former northern and eastern-most parts of the Territory comprise the new territory of Nunavut, effective April 1, 1999.MarylandMorale: The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.