Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Health Facility Planning: Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Hospital Restructuring: Reorganization of the hospital corporate structure.Organizational Affiliation: Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Voluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)United StatesHealth Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Chief Executive Officers, Hospital: Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Reimbursement, Incentive: A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.CaliforniaMedicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Accountable Care Organizations: Organizations of health care providers that agree to be accountable for the quality, cost, and overall care of Medicare beneficiaries who are enrolled in the traditional fee-for-service program who are assigned to it. Assigned means those beneficiaries for whom the professionals in the organization provide the bulk of primary care services. (www.cms.gov/OfficeofLegislation/Downloads/Accountable CareOrganization.pdf accessed 03/16/2011)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.