Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Mental Health Associations: Voluntary organizations which support educational programs and research in psychiatry with the objective of the promotion of mental health. An early association in the United States was founded as the National Committee for Mental Hygiene in 1909, became the Mental Health Association in 1976 and later the National Mental Health Association in 1980. State and local mental health associations in this country are chartered by the national organization and affiliated with it.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Schools: Educational institutions.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.EnglandMassachusettsBostonDelawareBaltimoreOrganizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Libraries, MedicalCathode Ray Tube: A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Asepsis: The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.Library Administration: Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.BooksTriploidy: Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.Lens Subluxation: Incomplete rupture of the zonule with the displaced lens remaining behind the pupil. In dislocation, or complete rupture, the lens is displaced forward into the anterior chamber or backward into the vitreous body. When congenital, this condition is known as ECTOPIA LENTIS.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Glaucoma Drainage Implants: Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.GreeceSingaporeScience: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.