Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Mekong Valley: The geographic area of the Mekong Valley in general or when the specific country or countries are not indicated. Usually includes Cambodia, Indochina, and Laos.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.LaosAntibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Echinostomatidae: A family of flukes (TREMATODA) characterized by a collar of spines at their anterior end. The body is elongated and is covered with spines, and the two suckers are usually close together. (Noble et al., Parasitology: the Biology of Animal Parasites, 6th ed, p183)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Dipteryx: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.Schistosomatidae: A family of blood flukes of the class Trematoda which is found in animals and man. It Includes the genera Heterobilharzia, Schistosomatium, Schistosoma, Ornithobilharzia, Bilharziella, Trichobilharzia, Pseudobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Schistosomicides: Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.ConjunctivitisErythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).