Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A coordinated international effort to identify and catalog patterns of linked variations (HAPLOTYPES) found in the human genome across the entire human population.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is most frequently isolated from bovine eyes in cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, INFECTIOUS), but also occurs in unaffected eyes and the nasal cavity of cattle.