The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.
Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Food products manufactured from poultry.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.