Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Nursing Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.AstrologyUser-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)United StatesNursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Decision Making, Computer-Assisted: Use of an interactive computer system designed to assist the physician or other health professional in choosing between certain relationships or variables for the purpose of making a diagnostic or therapeutic decision.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Local Area Networks: Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.Decision Support Systems, Management: Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.TennesseeSoftware Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Health Information Systems: A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/en/)Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Nursing Care: Care given to patients by nursing service personnel.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Libraries, MedicalAutomatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Awards and PrizesNursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Management Information Systems: Systems designed to provide information primarily concerned with the administrative functions associated with the provision and utilization of services; also includes program planning, etc.Knowledge Management: The leveraging of collective wisdom within an organization as a catalyst to increase responsiveness and innovation.Tissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Library Automation: The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.ComputersArtificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.OregonKnowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems: A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.EponymsModels, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Public Law No: 111-5, enacted February 2009, makes supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009.UtahLibrarians: Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Evidence-Based Nursing: A way of providing nursing care that is guided by the integration of the best available scientific knowledge with nursing expertise. This approach requires nurses to critically assess relevant scientific data or research evidence, and to implement high-quality interventions for their nursing practice.Models, Nursing: Theoretical models simulating behavior or activities in nursing, including nursing care, management and economics, theory, assessment, research, and education. Some examples of these models include Orem Self-Care Model, Roy Adaptation Model, and Rogers Life Process Model.IndianaGoals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Software Validation: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.Electronic Prescribing: The use of COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS to store and transmit medical PRESCRIPTIONS.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Comparative Effectiveness Research: Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. (hhs.gov/recovery/programs/cer/draftdefinition.html accessed 6/12/2009)Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Total Quality Management: The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Visible Human Projects: Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.New YorkGenetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.