Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Nurse's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in nursing related to provision of services including diagnosis and treatment.Nurse Administrators: Nurses professionally qualified in administration.Nurse-Patient Relations: Interaction between the patient and nurse.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Nursing Care: Care given to patients by nursing service personnel.Physician-Nurse Relations: The reciprocal interaction of physicians and nurses.Specialties, Nursing: Various branches of nursing practice limited to specialized areas.Emergency Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Nursing Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of nursing care.Models, Nursing: Theoretical models simulating behavior or activities in nursing, including nursing care, management and economics, theory, assessment, research, and education. Some examples of these models include Orem Self-Care Model, Roy Adaptation Model, and Rogers Life Process Model.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Psychiatric Nursing: A specialty concerned with the application of psychiatric principles in caring for the mentally ill. It also includes the nursing care provided the mentally ill patient.Nursing Diagnosis: Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.Clinical Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.Nursing Services: A general concept referring to the organization and administration of nursing activities.Nursing Methodology Research: Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.Burnout, Professional: An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.Nurse Midwives: Professional nurses who have received postgraduate training in midwifery.Evidence-Based Nursing: A way of providing nursing care that is guided by the integration of the best available scientific knowledge with nursing expertise. This approach requires nurses to critically assess relevant scientific data or research evidence, and to implement high-quality interventions for their nursing practice.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Nursing Evaluation Research: Research carried out by nurses that uses interviews, data collection, observation, surveys, etc., to evaluate nursing, health, clinical, and nursing education programs and curricula, and which also demonstrates the value of such evaluation.Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.Nursing Education Research: Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.Neonatal Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.Nurses, Male: Nurses of the male sex.Office Nursing: Nursing practice limited to an office setting.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Societies, Nursing: Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.Nursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.History of NursingInterprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Nursing Service, Hospital: The hospital department which is responsible for the organization and administration of nursing activities.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Primary Nursing: The primary responsibility of one nurse for the planning, evaluation, and care of a patient throughout the course of illness, convalescence, and recovery.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Nursing, Supervisory: Administration of nursing services for one or more clinical units.Nurses, Public Health: Nurses whose goal is to improve health and quality of life in a population or community through the prevention and treatment of disease and other physical and mental health conditions, the surveillance of cases and health indicators, and the promotion of healthy behaviors through public education and awareness.Geriatric Nursing: Nursing care of the aged patient given in the home, the hospital, or special institutions such as nursing homes, psychiatric institutions, etc.Physician Assistants: Health professionals who practice medicine as members of a team with their supervising physicians. They deliver a broad range of medical and surgical services to diverse populations in rural and urban settings. Duties may include physical exams, diagnosis and treatment of disease, interpretation of tests, assist in surgery, and prescribe medications. (from http://www.aapa.orglabout-pas accessed 2114/2011)Advanced Practice Nursing: Evidence-based nursing, midwifery and healthcare grounded in research and scholarship. Practitioners include nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives.Nursing Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.Personnel Loyalty: Dedication or commitment shown by employees to organizations or institutions where they work.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Licensure, Nursing: The granting of a license to practice the profession of nursing.Maternal-Child Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.United StatesWork Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)American Nurses' Association: Professional society representing the field of nursing.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.EnglandSchools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Nursing Theory: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Operating Room Nursing: The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Family Nursing: The provision of care involving the nursing process, to families and family members in health and illness situations. From Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. 6th ed.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Military Nursing: The practice of nursing in military environments.Great BritainPerioperative Nursing: Nursing care of the surgical patient before, during, and after surgery.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Pediatric Nurse Practitioners: Registered nurses with graduate degrees in nursing who provide care to pediatric patients who are acutely or critically ill.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Patient Safety: Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Education, Nursing, Diploma Programs: Programs usually offered in hospital schools of nursing leading to a registered nurse diploma (RN). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Medical Errors: Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.Personnel Delegation: To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structureLeadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Hospital Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.House Calls: Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.Economics, Nursing: Economic aspects of the nursing profession.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.International Council of Nurses: An international professional organization composed of one association per country for the purpose of improving and developing nursing's contribution to the promotion of health and care of the sick.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.PennsylvaniaRole: The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Medical Secretaries: Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Time Management: Planning and control of time to improve efficiency and effectiveness.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Venereology: A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Visitors to Patients: Patients' guests and rules for visiting.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.After-Hours Care: Medical care provided after the regular practice schedule of the physicians. Usually it is designed to deliver 24-hour-a-day and 365-day-a-year patient care coverage for emergencies, triage, pediatric care, or hospice care.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Case Management: A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Continuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with care of patients facing serious or life-threatening illnesses. The goal of palliative nursing is to prevent and relieve suffering, and to support the best possible quality of life for patients and their families. Hospice nursing is palliative care for people in their final stages of life.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Personnel Administration, Hospital: Management activities concerned with hospital employees.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Hotlines: A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.