Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Self-Sustained Sequence Replication: An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.Ligase Chain Reaction: A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Keratin-19: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Trichomonas Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.Trichomonas: A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Longitudinal Ligaments: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Schools: Educational institutions.Infection Control Practitioners: Physicians or other qualified individuals responsible for implementing and overseeing the policies and procedures followed by a health care facility to reduce the risk of infection to patients and staff.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Pathology, Molecular: A subspecialty of pathology concerned with the molecular basis (e.g., mutations) of various diseases.Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.