Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.BooksTextbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Book SelectionHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Neutron Diffraction: The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Air Pollution, RadioactiveWriting: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Nuclear Fission: Nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium or plutonium is split into two approximately equal parts by a neutron, charged particle, or photon.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Nuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)