Nuclear Fission: Nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium or plutonium is split into two approximately equal parts by a neutron, charged particle, or photon.Physical Processes: The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Helsinki Declaration: An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)Nuclear Weapons: A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.Nuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.MiningBooksBibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Nuclear Fusion: Thermonuclear reaction in which the nuclei of an element of low atomic weight unite under extremely high temperature and pressure to form a nucleus of a heavier atom.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Thorium Dioxide: Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.Thorium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain thorium as an integral part of the molecule.Scenedesmus: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Bombs: A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.NevadaModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.