Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.Nose Deformities, Acquired: Abnormalities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the nose, and the throat, also known as the ENT diseases.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Nasal Surgical Procedures: Surgical operations on the nose and nasal cavity.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Polychondritis, Relapsing: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rhinometry, Acoustic: Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).Amorphophallus: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Abnormalities, MultipleRhinophyma: A manifestation of severe ROSACEA resulting in significant enlargement of the NOSE and occurring primarily in men. It is caused by hypertrophy of the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and surrounding CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The nose is reddened and marked with TELANGIECTASIS.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Respiratory Tract DiseasesReceptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Granuloma, Lethal Midline: A condition that is characterized by inflammation, ulceration, and perforation of the nose and the PALATE with progressive destruction of midline facial structures. This syndrome can be manifested in several diseases including the nasal type of EXTRANODAL NK-T-CELL LYMPHOMA and GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS.Groin: The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Rhinosporidium: A genus in the order Dermocystidium, class MESOMYCETOZOEA. It causes RHINOSPORIDIOSIS in MAMMALS and BIRDS.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.