NorwayRats, Inbred BNPicea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.ScandinaviaSvalbardArctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Seoul virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS causing a less severe form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME in Asia (primarily Korea and Japan). It is transmitted by rats, especially Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.EuropeRegistries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Rats, Inbred F344IcelandSwedenSalmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Oncorhynchus: A genus of the family SALMONIDAE (salmons and trouts). They are named for their hooked (onco) nose (rhynchus). They are usually anadromous and occasionally inhabit freshwater. They can be found in North Pacific coastal areas from Japan to California and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. Salmon and trout are popular game and food fish. Various species figure heavily in genetic, metabolism, and hormone research.Oncorhynchus keta: An anadromous species of SALMON found in the streams of the Pacific coast from Sacramento north, and also common in Japan. It is used frequently in genetic and other medical research.Oncorhynchus kisutch: An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Pacific OceanMexicoSocial Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Los AngelesQuercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Epigastric Arteries: Inferior and external epigastric arteries arise from external iliac; superficial from femoral; superior from internal thoracic. They supply the abdominal muscles, diaphragm, iliac region, and groin. The inferior epigastric artery is used in coronary artery bypass grafting and myocardial revascularization.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)ArtEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cape Verde: The republic consists of islands that are located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean about 300 miles off the west coast of Africa. The archipelago includes 10 islands and 5 islets, divided into the windward (Barlavento) and leeward (Sotavento) groups. The capital is Praia.RussiaNorth AmericaMultilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene: A very potent liver carcinogen.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Lens Plant: A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)