Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylmuramic Acid: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which is formed from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate. It serves as the building block upon which peptidoglycan is formed.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Dictionaries, ChemicalPubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Ciliophora Infections: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Amoebida: An order of ameboid protozoa that is commonly uninucleate and possess mitochondria. Most organisms are nonpathogenic.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Struthioniformes: An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.EthylenediaminesDiamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.BrazilFruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Lactococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Leukemia, Neutrophilic, Chronic: A rare myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by a sustained, mature neutrophilic leukocytosis. No monocytosis, EOSINOPHILIA, or basophilia is present, nor is there a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr-abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).Dihydroergotamine: A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.